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The key commonality between all current silicon PUF implementations is
their use of parametric manufacturing variations as the source of
randomness, which makes stability of the PUF response a major concern.
A Locally Enhanced Defectivity Physical Unclonable Function (LEDPUF)
is a complete stable PUF implemented by inserting random signal
generation units built from hard defective vias. These hard defective
vias make LEDPUF resistant to environmental variations because they
are permanent and manifested in digital forms. The random signal
generation units and several possible mechanisms for random hard
defective via generation will be described, such as Direct Self
Assembly (DSA), Carbon Nanotube, memristors, and process variation